28. September 2021

Moscow Agreement 1963

Filed under: Allgemein — @ 01:15

Other bilateral emergency call agreements After the hotline between Washington and Moscow proved useful, other states set up hotlines. In 1966, France signed an agreement establishing a direct communication link between Paris and Moscow. As part of the Anglo-Soviet Agreement of 1967, a direct line of communication was established between Moscow and London. The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the short name of the 1963 treaty banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, space and underwater, which prohibited all nuclear weapon test detonations, with the exception of those carried out underground. It is also abbreviated as the Ban Treaty (LTBT) and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the latter may also relate to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTBT) treatment, which replaced the PTBT for the parties to ratification. Tsarapkin responded favorably to the U.S. proposal, but was cautious with the prospect of allowing underground tests under magnitude 4.75. In its own proposal of March 19, 1960, the Soviet Union accepted most of the American provisions with some modifications. First, the Soviet Union requested a ban on underground tests with a magnitude of 4.75 for a period of four to five years, subject to an extension. Second, it has tried to ban all space tests, whether or not they are on the cover. Finally, the Soviet Union insisted that the inspection rate be set on a political basis, not on a scientific basis. The Soviet offer was received in a mixed manner.

In the United States, Senator Hubert Humphrey and the Federation of American Scientists (normally considered a proponent of a test ban) saw it as a clear step toward an agreement. Conversely, ACS Chairman John A. McCone and Senator Clinton Presba Anderson, chair of the Joint Committee on Nuclear Energy, argued that the Soviet system would not be able to prevent secret testing. This year, the ACS issued a report claiming that the ongoing test moratorium risked the „free global superiority of nuclear weapons“ and that further testing was essential for further weapons development. The Joint Committee also held hearings in April which raised doubts about the technical feasibility and cost of the proposed review measures. [86] In addition, Teller continued to warn of the dangerous consequences of a test ban, and the Department of Defense (including Neil H. McElroy and Donald A. Quarles, until recently its two senior officials) insisted that missile stockpiles continue to be tested and expanded. [84] Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, a formal treaty banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, space and underwater, signed in Moscow on August 5, 1963 by the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom, banning all nuclear weapons tests except those carried out underground. In a letter to President Eisenhower on 17 October 1956, Prime Minister Bulganin set out the fundamental Soviet position. „Given that, in the current state of science, any explosion of an atomic or hydrogen bomb cannot be produced without being registered in other countries,“ there could be an immediate agreement to ban testing without international control.

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