9. April 2021

Desertification Agreement

Filed under: Allgemein — @ 04:28

„For example, the demand for meat in Europe can lead to the removal of forested land in South America. While desertification is being experienced in some places, its driving forces are global and come largely from the dominant global political and economic system. Forests also play an important role in the water cycle, especially in the tropics. For example, in the 1970s, published studies showed that the Amazon rainforest produced about half of its own rainfall. This means that grubbing up forests may dry up the local climate, increasing the risk of desertification. Another influence of desertification is the increase in sand and dust storms. These natural phenomena, known several times as sirocco, haboob, yellow dust, white storms and harmattans, occur when strong winds blow loose sand and dirt from bare, dry soils. Studies suggest that global dust emissions increased by 25% between the end of the 19th century and today, with climate change and land use being the main protagonons. The agreement, the only agreement resulting from a direct recommendation of agenda 21 of the Rio Conference, was adopted on 17 June 1994 in Paris, France, and came into force in December 1996. It is the only legally binding framework established at the international level to address the problem of desertification. The agreement is based on the principles of participation, partnership and decentralization – the backbone of good governance and sustainable development.

It has 197 parties, so it is almost universal at hand. The expert group develops and provides all interested parties with information on appropriate mechanisms for scientific and technological cooperation and articulates research projects that promote awareness of desertification and drought between countries and stakeholders at international, regional and national levels. Food production is also an important driver of desertification. Increased demand for food can lead to an expansion of arable land in forests and grasslands and the use of intensive farming methods to maximize yields. Overgrazing of livestock can reduce vegetation and nutrients in areas. „In many countries, desertification means a decrease in soil fertility, a decrease in vegetation cover, especially by covering grass, and more invasive shrub species. In practice, the effects of reduced area available on pasture and less productive soils are the consequences. Ecosystems are beginning to be different as drier tolerant shrubs enter grasslands and more bald soils are exposed. Dr Katerina Michaelides, senior lecturer at the Drylands Research Group at the University of Bristol and author of the desert research chapter of the IPCC Regional Report, describes a shift to drier conditions as the major impact of a warmer climate on desertification.

She told Carbon Lettre: „Wildlife, especially large mammals, has limited capacity to adapt in a timely manner to the effects of climate change and desertification.“ The UN Convention on Combating Desertification has established a Science and Technology Committee (CSE).

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